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TEN YEARS JAPAN


TEN YEARS JAPAN (Juu Nen)


September 20, 2018

Q&A guests: Directors Akiyo Fujimura, Chie Hayakawa
Kei Ishikawa, Yusuke Kinoshita and Megumi Tsuno


FCCJ Ten Years Koichi Mori-11
All five directors appeared at FCCJ, uniting them in public for the first time since the omnibus film’s completion: (from left) Chie Hayakawa, 
Yusuke Kinoshita, Akiyo Fujimura, Megumi Tsuno and Kei Ishikawa. It was a fitting final Film Night at the club’s current facilities.
After 42 years, we’re moving to brand-new quarters at the end of the month.  ©Koichi Mori

The phrase “film franchise” invariably evokes mega-budget Hollywood series like Harry Potter, X-Men, even James Bond. So when producer Miyuki Takamatsu told the FCCJ audience that Ten Years Japan represented a new type of arthouse franchise, it gave the audience pause.

Takamatsu, founder of the sales and distribution firm Free Stone Productions, decided to become a franchise player after seeing the angry, dystopian omnibus film Ten Years, in 2015. Co-directed by five young filmmakers in Hong Kong, it had been inspired by the Umbrella Movement that began shaking the colony in late 2014, and imagined an exceedingly bleak future under China’s tightening control.

Surprisingly, Ten Years went on to win Best Film at the HK Film Awards, causing China to black out the awards show and to ban the film. Nevertheless, it earned HK$6 million in covert, self-distributed screenings, and was seen around the world.

FCCJ Ten Years miyuki Mance ThompsonMiyuki Takamatsu, producer and "franchise" founder. @Mance Thompson

Along with that film’s international sales agent, Felix Tsang, and former Fox executive Lorraine Ma, Takamatsu discussed taking the concept regional. They formed a partnership called Ten Years Studio and in 2017, announced a trio of follow-on projects, with films to be made concurrently in Taiwan, Thailand and Japan.

Takamatsu then convinced Palm d’Or-winning auteur Hirokazu Kore-eda to sign on as executive producer of the Japanese version, which like its counterparts, is thematically and stylistically varied, as well as deeply thought-provoking. Ten Years Japan may lack the urgency and political spitfire of the original, but its quiet, contemplative approach does not mask its overall vision of hopelessness.

Speaking fluently in English and Japanese, Takamatsu told the FCCJ audience: “I think this is the first experience for the film industry around the world that a concept has been shared. Pick five directors, each of them makes a short film of less than 20 minutes, and freely expresses how their countries will be in 10 years. I think it was quite interesting to expand the concept to other countries, and after these first three, we are hoping to have Ten Years Korea, Ten Years India and more.”

FCCJ Ten Years Mance Thompson-11The directors were chosen for their visions, not their names. @Mance Thompson

Praising her fellow producers for Ten Years Japan, Eiko Mizuno Gray and Jason Gray of Loaded Films, who were also in the FCCJ audience, she explained: “We asked some 30 young filmmakers to submit a short synopsis and chose 12. We then discussed them with Mr. Kore-eda, and finally picked these five because their ideas and scripts were great, not because of their names or previous work. It was really important for Mr. Kore-eda and for us to take the time to discuss the scripts, and to mold the entire process to create one feature film.”

Kicking off the Q&A session following our sneak preview, a journalist noted that the molding process had yielded films of equally impressive quality, unlike the usual unevenness of most omnibus efforts. He wondered whether there had been any coordination or even collaboration between filmmakers during production to achieve such a uniform level of excellence.

Speaking for the group, Chie Hayakawa explained, “In August last year, all of us met and heard for the first time about each other’s projects. There was no coordination or even communication between us during the production process, so we heard each other’s concepts, and then we saw the completed films. That made it a really interesting experience.”

Although the five emerging filmmakers, appearing together for the first time in public since the completion of the film, received several specific questions, in the interests of fairness, here’s a brief rundown of the questions that were posed to all five. Responses appear in alphabetical order.

FCCJ Ten Years Koichi Mori-1   FCCJ Ten Years Mance Thompson-4
Akiyo Fujiwara won the Skip City Award at the 2016 Skip City International D-Cinema Festival for her feature debut, Eriko, Pretended.
Left: ©Koichi Mori, Right: ©Mance Thompson

On how they selected their themes:
Akiyo Fujimura, director of The Air We Can't See, in which a disaster has driven the Japanese population deep underground, until one lonely girl finds a “place only kids can go”: “While I was thinking about my theme, I looked back on the past 10 years in Japan. What really stood out was the 2011 Fukushima disaster, and when that happened, there was a real fear of the air, which we can’t even see. I’d never imagined being afraid of the air, and it seemed a real likelihood that [a disaster like that suggested in the film] could happen within the next 10 years.”

Chie Hayakawa, director of Plan 75, in which longevity has become a liability in Japan, leading to a government-promulgated solution that targets the disenfranchised: “My theme was inspired by our aging society, and the sentiment behind it was my anger at the way the disabled and the poor, society’s weak, are treated. There’s not a lot of room for them these days, and that made me very angry and lead to this film.”

FCCJ Ten Years Koichi Mori-8   FCCJ Ten Years Mance Thompson-10
Chie Hayakawa’s 2014 film Niagara won the Grand Prix at the Pia Film Festival as well as prizes from the
Vladivostok International Film Festival and the International Women’s Film Festival in Seoul
.
Left: ©Koichi Mori, Right: ©Mance Thompson

Kei Ishikawa, director of For Our Beautiful Country, in which an adman (Taiga, in a standout performance) begins to rethink his job when he has to promote Japan’s remilitarization: “What I wanted to express was the freedom of expression. There was a Japanese painter, Leonard Foujita, who became a wartime [propaganda] painter during WWII, and that made me try to imagine how creative artists can be co-opted into the vortex of politics and the State in times of war or tumult. I thought that what would be most likely, 10 years from now, would be universal conscription.”

FCCJ Ten Years Koichi Mori-5   FCCJ Ten Years Mance Thompson-3
Kei Ishikawa’s feature debut, Gukoroku: Traces of Sin, premiered at the Venice International Film Festival in 2016 and
went on to domestic box office success.  Left: ©Koichi Mori, Right: ©Mance Thompson

Yusuke Kinoshita, director of Mischievous Alliance, in which children disrupt the 24/7 monitoring systems that control their every thought and deed, in order to rescue a dying horse: “When I received the offer to participate in the project, it was only 3 days after the birth of my son, and I decided to make the protagonist a 10-year-old boy. Since April this year, ethics was made a part of Japan’s compulsory education, and that made me think about what effect that would have 10 years from now. My own view is that it’s really difficult for children to learn ethics in a classroom setting. We can only find our own answers through action, and trial and error. I think that’s the way children should learn ethics. Neither teachers nor adults are perfect, so I feel dubious about our ability to teach through lecturing.”

Megumi Tsuno, director of Data, in which a young woman (rising star Hana Sugisaki) finds her mother’s digital inheritance card, and is able to connect with her past, which is a mixed blessing: “I know that the original Hong Kong version essentially focused on one political theme. But what I wanted to depict was the clear and present danger [of technology] that exists in our daily lives.”

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Yusuke Kinoshita’s feature debut, Water Flower, premiered at the Berlin International Film Festival.  ©Mance Thompson
 

On working with Kore-eda:
Akiyo Fujimura, director of The Air We Can't See: “I received advice from Mr. Kore-eda several times during both scriptwriting and editing. What made me especially happy is that he took the trouble to watch our previous films. He commended certain aspects that he liked, and gave me advice about how I could’ve improved it. That was a really good experience for me. He really respects the creative process and each director’s style. While following his advice, I realized it was steering me in the direction that I’d wanted to go in the first place.”

Chie Hayakawa, director of Plan 75: “He would always say to us ‘You are the directors,’ and I felt a real respect from him, that he was treating us as equals. He was never didactic in the way he related to us.”

FCCJ Ten Years FCCJ-6   FCCJ Ten Years FCCJ-7
Megumi Tsuno joined Bun-Buku in 2015, under acclaimed directors Hirokazu Kore-eda and Miwa Nishikawa, and directed the
making-of documentary for Kore-eda’s The Third Murder©FCCJ

Kei Ishikawa, director of For Our Beautiful Country: “He gave us a lot of advice throughout the scriptwriting and editing process. But what really struck me was that, after I’d completed my film, he said that when he gave advice and a director came back without changing their script in certain ways he’d advised, he interpreted that as a sign that the director was principled. So he wouldn’t give the same advice twice. My discussions with him were very different from my experiences with other producers.”

Yusuke Kinoshita, director of Mischievous Alliance: “I received his feedback on three drafts of my screenplay. Naturally, since he is also a wonderful filmmaker in his own right, he gave me feedback not only on how he thought the audience would interpret the film, but also in terms of figuring out exactly what my own intentions were. When I first told him the synopsis, he asked me whether or not it had a happy ending. It really didn’t occur to me to look at it either as a happy or sad ending, and it was a challenge for me to figure out what I really wanted to say as a filmmaker.”

Megumi Tsuno, director of Data: “[As a staff member at Kore-eda’s own production company] I’ve had the fortunate experience of working with Mr. Kore-eda on set, and what always struck me is that he would continue writing and rewriting his scripts until just before shooting. Sometimes he would arrive on set and say, ‘I just thought of something in the taxi, so I’m going to change this part.’ I know it’s really daring for an inexperienced filmmaker like myself, but I’m afraid I did the same thing, and made changes until the last minute.” 

FCCJ Ten Years Koichi Mori-10 ©Koichi Mori

On whether they felt any constraints on their creative self-expression:
Akiyo Fujimura
, director of The Air We Can't See: “As a child, I didn’t enjoy studying. I was a film buff from my earliest years, and through cinema, I learned about the history of Japan and of the world. For instance, watching The Grave of the Fireflies taught me that war is something we should avoid at all costs. I think film can teach us about the world in the same way that school can, and it would be great if we could see films depicting more political and social issues. I hope I can continue incorporating them into my feature filmmaking.”

Chie Hayakawa, director of Plan 75: “Of course there isn’t any censorship in Japanese filmmaking, so we should be free to depict any theme we want. However, I do sense a kind of self-censorship when it comes to film companies and investors. They’ll say, ‘Well, that topic is hard to fund.’ I heard from the producers that this project was difficult in that sense. But it gave us a lot of confidence that it was a pan-Asian project, and that other filmmakers in other countries were also making films.”  

Kei Ishikawa, director of For Our Beautiful Country: “I don’t think Ten Years Japan is overtly political, at least not compared to the Hong Kong version. But perhaps this fact, that we five all drew the line, reflects the current state of our country. It’s unnatural, the way that [other filmmakers] are avoiding depictions of these issues. I think there could have been more [hard-hitting] films about the Fukushima disaster, but there does seem to be self-censorship surrounding this country. So against that backdrop, I think we should be grateful to be given this platform to freely create.”

FCCJ Ten Years Mance Thompson-15
The omnibus directors applaud the audience following their first joint appearance. ©Koichi Mori

Yusuke Kinoshita, director of Mischievous Alliance: “I’m so grateful to the producers and to Mr. Kore-eda for offering this platform to create original scripts and original films. What instigated my film was the idea that I don’t think politics are separate from ourselves, they’re not ‘the other side.’ We have to consider ourselves part of politics, and when we do, that sentiment can change the system. I hope audiences who see my film will feel that way and help instigate change.” 

Megumi Tsuno, director of Data: “I realize the difficulties that result from trying to depict political issues in film, including funding difficulties. So I was really thankful to participate in this pan-Asian project, to have the opportunity to create my own original script, and to be able to make my film without any limitations. I think it’s quite a revolutionary platform, and I’m so grateful to be part of it. Going forward, what I really want to do is to depict human stories. So I think it’s inescapable that politics and society will appear in the background of my films.”

FCCJ Ten Years Mance Thompson-16

The team with the Japanese poster for the film. @Mance Thompson

Ten Years Japan had its world premiere at the Busan Film Festival in October, where the three “franchise” films played together for the first time. Audience reactions were diverse, as they are for any omnibus project. But it’s clear that there is a future for this type of cinematic exploration, especially as the world continues its swing to the right.

TYJ poster 2018Ten Years JapanFilm Partners
©2018 “Ten Years Japan” Film Partners

Selected Media Exposure

ASIAN THREE-FOLD MIRROR PANEL AND SCREENING IN COLLABORATION WITH TIFF


ASIAN THREE-FOLD MIRROR PANEL AND SCREENING IN COLLABORATION WITH TIFF


October 3, 2018
Q&A guests: Directors Isao Yukisada and Daishi Matsunaga,
TIFF Director Takeo Hisamatsu, Japan Foundation President Hiroyasu Ando,
TIFF Japan Now advisor Kohei Ando


Yuki-Matsu-2-FCCJ TIFF2018 Mance-27
Daishi Matsunaga and Isao Yukisada screened their Asian-shot films at FCCJ. ©Mance Thompson

The Film Committee’s annual event in conjunction with the Tokyo International Film Festival (TIFF) did not focus, as it has for the past decade, on the Japanese films in this year’s 31st edition. Instead, two of Japan’s most acclaimed directors, Isao Yukisada (Go, River’s Edge) and Daishi Matsunaga (Pieta in the Toilet, Hanalei Bay), joined us to discuss their participation in the omnibus film project Asian Three-Fold Mirror.

A coproduction between the Japan Foundation Asia Center and TIFF, Asian Three-Fold Mirror has twice brought together three young directors from Japan and other Asian countries to co-create omnibus films with a common theme. The first volume, Asian Three-Fold Mirror 2016: Reflections, which included Yukisada’s Pigeon, debuted at the 29th TIFF. On October 26, the second volume, Asian Three-Fold Mirror 2018: Journey, which includes Matsunaga’s Hekishu, will have its world premiere at the 31st TIFF.

Prior to the special screening of Pigeon and a sneak preview of Journey, the directors spoke briefly of their experiences working outside Japan. “I’ve been really influenced by Asian films,” said Yukisada. “In Malaysia, where I shot Pigeon, there’s a very famous director called Yasmin Ahmad, whose work really influenced me. Unfortunately, she passed away recently. But I wondered how my own filmmaking might change when combined with the atmosphere of Malaysian film. The tradition of filmmaking in each country should be enjoyed and appreciated, and I have very fond memories of my experience working with an international cast and crew in Malaysia.”  

Hisamatsu-FCCJ TIFF2018 FCCJ-1   Ando-JF-FCCJ TIFF2018 FCCJ-3   Ando-K-FCCJ TIFF2018 Mance-5

Matsunaga-FCCJ TIFF2018 FCCJ-5   Yukisada FCCJ TIFF2018 FCCJ-4
Clockwise from uppper left: TIFF Director Takeo Hisamatsu, Japan Foundation President Hiroyasu Ando,
TIFF Japan Now Programming Advisor Kohei Ando, Yukisada, Matsunaga. Top right ©Mance Thompson, Others ©FCCJ

Matsunaga agreed. “I worked with a crew from China, Indonesia, Myanmar and the UK on Hekishu, which was shot in Myanmar,” he said. “It was really a great experience, allowing me to learn a lot and grow as a director.”

Discussing the importance of this ongoing coproduction project for the film festival, TIFF Director Takeo Hisamatsu told the FCCJ audience, “TIFF has been focusing on Asia and other themes since my predecessor’s time. Of course we’re an international film festival, so we think it’s important for a number of reasons, including distance, to have a strong relationship and interactions with other countries in Asia. We would like to continue working with the Japan Foundation Asia Center to focus more attention on the region. We believe that Asian Three-Fold Mirror is a wonderful project, and we hope it will continue.”

Providing important context for the project, Japan Foundation President Hiroyasu Ando noted, “Fifty-three percent of the world’s population is in Asia, and the rapidly growing economies of the region are acting as an engine for the world economy. Most of the foreign tourists coming to Japan are Asian. For these and other reasons, we believe Asia will continue to be very important to Japan, and we are working to create a two-way cultural flow between Japan and the cultures of Asia.”

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The panel shares a laugh.  ©Koichi Mori
 

When queried specifically about the future of Asian Three-Fold Mirror, he responded, “The Japan Foundation would like to continue working with TIFF on cultural exchanges between Japan and Asian countries. Asia is a vast region, and we’re looking forward to hearing feedback from audiences at TIFF as well as around Asia, in regards to the direction of the next Asian Three-Fold Mirror project.”

Hisamatsu also spoke briefly about some of the other highlights at this year’s festival, which runs from October 25 – November 3. Among them is the addition of a Best Director prize in the Japanese Cinema Splash section, which is devoted to indie film and has nurtured the careers of such notable filmmakers are Rikiya Imaizumi, Daigo Matsui, Eiji Uchida and Hirobumi Watanabe.

Programming Advisor Kohei Ando also revealed some of the highlights of his Japan Now lineup. “There’s a global trend right now to reduce everything to a slogan, like ‘America First,’” he said. “With this year’s Japan Now, we want to do the opposite, and focus on films that highlight Japanese ambiguity. We are showcasing the work of internationally renowned actor Koji Yakusho, who’s famous for revealing the ambiguous natures of the diverse characters that he’s played. We’re starting with his starring role in The Eel, which won the Palm d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival 20 years ago, and showing a total of five films, including his latest, Blood of Wolves, in which he portrays a very ambiguous detective. Mr. Yakusho will be attending every screening for a Q&A session, along with the film’s directors. We are also showing nine other films that are among the best works of this past year.”

(Included in the Japan Now lineup is Yukisada’s River’s Edge. Not included, to Ando’s regret, is Matsunaga’s Hanalei Bay, the adaptation of a Haruki Murakami short story. The film opens just before TIFF and thus wasn’t available for festival screenings.)  

Poster Visual AsianThree-Fold Mirror 2018-s   reflections 2016
©2018, ©2016 The Japan Foundation. All Rights Reserved.

Following the Asian Three-Fold Mirror screenings, Yukisada and Matsunaga returned to the dais and fielded a range of questions about their omnibus contributions.

Prompted for examples of differences in film production styles, Yukisada said, “In Malaysia, film shoots begin with a group photo, followed by a meal together. The Japanese crew members got really impatient about that, but it dawned on me that it was really Malaysian. They want to work together in harmony, so they take the time to share a meal and get to know each other before they start working. Unlike Japanese crews, Malaysians will never argue on set. They avoid conflict as much as possible. I think it encapsulates Malaysia, because it’s a nation where so many people from diverse cultures are living and working together. I really felt ashamed of our Japanese impatience, and I felt it was a great lesson.”

Matsunaga mentioned that he had shot Hanalei Bay in Hawaii before shooting in Myanmar, and noted that both places are far stricter about crews not working as long without a break as they do in Japan. “In Myanmar,” he said, “if you work over 12 hours, it becomes another day and you’re charged accordingly. That would be unthinkable in Japan. Even though Myanmar’s film industry is still developing, they’re already protecting casts and crews in this way. I felt the crew had great respect for my wishes, and would try their best to realize them. In my limited experience with Japanese crews, that’s not the case. Everyone seems to have their own ideas here, which they feel strongly about. It felt really liberating, working with the international crew in Myanmar.”

Hekishu
Hiroki Hasegawa in Hekishu. ©2018 The Japan Foundation. All Rights Reserved

A journalist from Indonesia asked how it came about that popular Indonesian actor Nicholas Saputra appeared in all three of the Journey films. Matsunaga answered, “I had Skype meetings, as well as meeting in person with my fellow omnibus directors, Degena Yun [from Inner Mongolia, China] and Edwin [from Indonesia], and we decided that we should have a common theme that would unite our three films. We also decided, since Nicholas had already been cast to star in Edwin’s film, that we could give him small cameos in each of our films, as a way to further unite our work. Nicholas’ role in Edwin’s film is a rather mysterious Japanese-like man, and that inspired both me and Degena in our scripts.”

Matsunaga’s Hekishu is set in Yangon, Myanmar, which is experiencing rapid democratization and urban renewal, although the old cityscape is still prominent, especially around the city’s slow-moving circular railway. A Japanese businessman, Suzuki (Hiroki Hasegawa of Shin Godzilla) arrives to work on the implementation of a new rapid-transit system. Yet, after meeting a Burmese seamstress named Su Su (Nandar Myat Aung), he begins to question just how much progress is actually good for the residents, many of whom will be displaced by the upgrade.

Yukisada FCCJ TIFF2018 Mance-22
©Mance Thompson

"I wanted to show the existing railway, and capture it as it is, almost like a documentary,” recalled Matsunaga. “I started my career with documentaries, and that appealed to me. When I thought about who I should cast for the role of the businessman, I wanted an actor who wouldn’t draw too much attention to himself, to maintain this documentary feel. I thought of Mr. Hasegawa because he has a unique presence, but at the same time, I thought he would blend into the landscape of Myanmar.”

Asked how he had cast Nandar Myat Aung, who is a first-time actressl, Matsunaga said, “We had assistance from the Myanmar-based production company and held auditions with professionals. But I wanted someone who wouldn’t ‘act,’ since it would undermine Mr. Hasegawa’s naturalness. We found her at an art school [where she’s currently studying film].”

Yukisada’s Pigeon is set in Penang, Malaysia, which is home to many Japanese retirees. The story revolves around a lonely old man (acting legend Masahiko Tsugawa) who lives in a spacious house and keeps pigeons on the roof. After his greedy son (Masatoshi Nagase) visits and flies into a rage, the old man grows even closer to his empathetic caregiver, Yasmin (Sharifah Amani). With her help, he is finally able to visit the beach where his brothers were killed during WWII and to make peace with their spirits.  

Pigeon Yukisada
Sharifah Amani and Masahiko Tsugawa in Pigeon. ©2016 The Japan Foundation. All Rights Reserved

Yukisada was asked about working with Tsugawa, who died in early August. “When I heard about his death, it was really a shock for me, as well as for the people we worked with on the film,” he recalled. “He was famous for hating to work overseas, and it was an incredible honor that he agreed to accept the role and come to Malaysia. It was the only chance I’d had to work with him, and he was playing a role that was based on my own grandfather. His intensity intimidated the cast and crew at first, but they came to really love him. None of us will ever forget the experience of working with him.”

Yukisada also spoke about casting his actress. “Sharifah Amani had been acting in the films of Yasmin Ahmad, the director I respected so much, since she was a child. After I couldn’t find anyone appropriate during auditions, I contacted her and reached her when she was shopping in a department store. So I rushed to the store and met her in a coffee shop there. It was so surprising how generally cheerful she is, yet when she’s hurt or depressed, she cries like a small child. It’s really rare to find someone like that.”

A Malaysian journalist lauded Yukisada’ direction, saying that Pigeon felt “very much like a Malaysian, not a Japanese, film.” How, he wondered, did the director write such realistic interactions between the Malaysian characters and direct them to such authentic performances? 

Fiveposter-FCCJ TIFF2018 Mance-16
 ©Mance Thompson

“What a compliment! Thank you,” responded Yukisada. “I have to admit that it was Sharifah Amani and the other actress, whom she had recommended, who came up with ideas. I wrote the storyline, but the details, and their reactions, were devised by the two women. I’m sure that’s why you felt it was so authentic.”

He couldn’t resist adding, “Also, I must say that Malaysian actors are surprisingly good at pronouncing Japanese as if they understand every line. They all grow up watching Japanese animated shows like Captain Tsubasa, Dragon Ball and Sailor Moon. That’s where the line about Sailor Moon came from.

Asian Three-Fold Mirror 2016: Reflections is getting a theatrical release in Tokyo — after 2 years making the rounds of festivals and special events overseas — from October 12-18. Following its world premiere at TIFF, Asian Three-Fold Mirror 2018: Journey will also be theatrically released, from November 9 to 15.

Poster Visual Tokyo International Film Festival

Selected Media Exposure

PASSAGE OF LIFE


PASSAGE OF LIFE (Boku no Kaerubasho)


September 20, 2018
Q&A guests: Director Akio Fujimoto, producer Kazutaka Watanabe and star Khin Myat Thu


Passage of life three KM-18
From left, producer Kazutaka Watanabe, director Akio Fujimoto and star Thin Myat Thu. ©Koichi Mori

The line between fiction and reality is blurred in Akio Fujimoto’s debut feature, Passage of Life. A poignant family drama with an undercurrent of political urgency, the Japan-Myanmar coproduction won both the Spirit of Asia Award and the Best Asian Future Film Award at the 2017 Tokyo International Film Festival — the first time a Japanese director had been so honored.

It went on to screen around the world to critical accolades, winning awards in the Netherlands and Thailand (where it qualified as a Burmese film). Just last month, it also received a Special Recognition honor from Japan’s Education Ministry, meaning that it is recommended for school viewings. As the awards season looms, there is every expectation that Passage of Life will be on many year-end lists.

The domestic accolades are especially important, since there are surprisingly few contemporary Japanese fiction films that incorporate pressing social issues into their storylines, and fewer still that treat non-Japanese characters (who barely seem to exist on screen here) with understanding or real compassion. 

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©Mance Thompson

At the Q&A session that followed the FC’s sneak preview, producer Kazutaka Watanabe explained the film’s genesis, way back in 2013: “The idea [to depict Burmese immigrants] came from Yuki Kitagawa, who appears in the film as the Japanese man who’s helping the family, and who also became the film’s co-producer. We had no money, and I didn’t have any experience as a producer yet, but we decided to go ahead with the project. Most of the information about Myanmar online is about the military government and Aung San Suu Kyi, not about the daily lives of Burmese. We wanted to tell a story that Japanese audiences could empathize with, that could also be full of discoveries. So we put out a monthlong open call for writer-directors online, and had about 40 responses. Mr. Fujimoto was the only one who wrote an entire script in that month, and he was also one of the most passionate. We were really impressed that despite his limited knowledge of Myanmar, he was able to create a believable world.”

Fujimoto conducted his initial research in Takadanobaba, which has one of Tokyo’s largest Burmese populations, and decided to portray one of the hard-luck stories he’d heard. He didn’t realize that his script would have to be vetted with the Myanmar government, nor that a representative would be on set during the shoot there. But despite the censorship, the film’s family can be seen as a metaphor for every family that has and is still facing an uncertain future. 

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Kaung contemplates life in Myanmar.  ©E.x.N K.K

Passage of Life drops us without preamble into the lives of Issace (Issace) and Khin (Khin Myat Thu), who immigrated to Japan from Myanmar without visas, along with their two sons, Kaung (Kaung Myat Thu) and Htet (Htet Myat Naing). They were following in the footsteps of many others, who began coming here in the wake of the 8888 Uprising (1988 pro-democracy demonstrations) in Myanmar. (There is briefly-seen newsreel footage of brutal military clampdowns on protestors.)

Issace and Khin find illegal work in Tokyo and create a happy life with their boys — although Kaung, now 7, and Htet, 4, believe they are Japanese and have the attitudes to go with it (“Idiot!” yells Htet, nearly hitting his mother in one fit of pique).

After several years of residency, Issace learns it is possible to file an application for political refugee status, and during his interview with Immigration, explains they left their country because “it was no longer safe.” But the request is denied, as happens all too frequently here, and no clear explanation is given. Issace tried to reassure Khin, who is struggling with an unnamed illness, but she pleads with him to return to Myanmar before their re-application is rejected again. “Things have changed back home since we came,” she says hopefully. “No way,” he responds. “Things can’t be that different. There’s no way we could back.”

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Kaung gets lost enroute to the airport.  ©E.x.N

Then one night, Immigration shows up at the door and warns Issace to stop working. Khin says, “We can’t be safe, not even in our own home… coming here was a big mistake. I want a normal life.”

After a hospitalization and with options fast dwindling, Khin makes the choice to takes the boys to Yangon, where they will grapple with their loss of friends and Japanese identity — as well as their distance from Issace, who has stayed in Japan to continue working so he can send them money. But Skype calls are not the same as being there, and one day, Kaung packs his rucksack, grabs a toy gun and heads for the airport.

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©FCCJ

Despite the film’s impressive social-issue immediacy, the initial Q&A questions focused on the extraordinary performances of the two small boys. Noting that it was the one thing he had been asked everywhere he traveled with the film, Fujimoto said, “No matter what nationalities the audiences were, everyone seemed to empathize with Kaung and this family. That made me really happy.”

He continued, “The most difficult part was that this was not an actual family, so the challenge was how to make them as real as possible. Since the father is not the boys’ real father, we had to figure out how to build a loving relationship between them. Khin-san [Khin Myat Thu] is their real mother, but the father is a Myanmar-based [stranger]. It was very difficult for the boys to call him ‘Papa’ at first.”

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 Fujimoto laughs as Myat Thu recalls mock-fighting with her son. ©Koichi Mori

Myat Thu, who has lived in Japan for 18 years, and whose sons were raised here, signed on to portray the mother when her elder boy, Kaung, decided he wanted to be in the film. She recalled, “The most challenging part of the process for me was the scene in which Kaung and I had to have a fight. That never happens in real life, so we had to find a way to fight realistically, and that was difficult.”

To capture a high degree of authenticity from the children, Fujimoto decided to shoot lengthy takes without interruption, and then spent 2 years editing down the resulting tens of hours of footage. He was asked why he had adopted the film’s documentary-like shooting style. The director answered, “It’s difficult to lock down the camera when you’re shooting children, unless you direct them to move in a restricted way. We wanted to have them move freely, and to have the camera move freely along with them.”

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Mom and the two boys explore the forests outside Yangon.  ©E.x.N K.K

Fujimoto also said he had accepted a certain degree of improvisation from the children, as long as the meaning of the original dialogue did not change. “We were extremely lucky, because although the younger boy, Htet, couldn’t read the script, he didn’t veer too far from it. But there was a certain scene in which he cries profusely, and that wasn’t included in the original script. It was supposed to be a very heartwarming scene, but when I explained what was happening [in the story] before the camera rolled, he just burst into tears.

“The original plan had been to tell the story of the older brother, Kaung, and [his coming of age]. We shot in sequence, and I was quite happy with how things were going. But thanks to [Htet’s outburst], it created a sudden juxtaposition with the younger boy’s own growth, or coming of age.”

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 Watanabe and Fujimoto.  ©Koichi Mori

Asked what he thought the film’s main message is, producer Kazutaka Watanabe replied, “What I found most impressive is that we had a Japanese director who was able to empathize with Burmese children. I feel that’s a rarity here — most creators don’t seem to feel empathy for people from Southeast Asian, or any foreigner, for that matter. Of course immigrants coexist with us in Japan, you see them working in convenience stores and family restaurants. But there’s no empathy. If we manage to get the audience to empathize with characters like this, we can expose them to something different. Of the film’s many messages, I think that’s the most important.”

Another journalist asked the director why Passage of Life was vague about the reasons that Isaace’s application for refugee status had been rejected. “It was intentional not to include too much exposition, or to give the background for why they had come to Japan in the first place,” responded Fujimoto. “This was a point I thought a lot about, but I ultimately decided to pare down those details. I could have given some explanation of why the system in Japan is so complicated and so strict. But what I really wanted to do was to show to daily lives of these people from their viewpoint.”

He added, “I think it’s probably very difficult even for professionals working in the immigration field to explain the reasons for a rejection, and it’s also difficult to prove that you’re a refugee. It would make me very happy if the film instigates discussion among immigrants in Japan.”

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©Mance Thompson

There are an estimated 10,000 Burmese currently here on legal visas, although watchdog groups suggest there are many more undocumented immigrants (from many nations) than the government’s official count.

Last year, Japan granted refugee status to only 20 people, out of nearly 20,000 applicants (a sharp increase over the previous year’s applications). The year before, it approved just 28. The Justice Ministry started a stricter screening system in January this year to eliminate applicants believed to be purely job-seekers, and reported in late August that applications had plunged 35% in the first half of 2018 (22 applicants were approved).

But Japan has not officially adopted an immigration policy, and as security is beefed up ahead of the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, the government is cracking down on those working illegally while awaiting the outcome of their refugee applications, putting them in detention centers and creating the sense that every visa overstayer is a criminal.

In a perfect world, every Japanese would watch Passage to Life and help, somehow, to implement correctives.

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©E.x.N K.K

 

ASAKO I & II


ASAKO I & II (Netemo Sametemo)


August 29, 2018
Q&A guests: Director Ryusuke Hamaguchi and star Erika Karata


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Hamaguchi (left) and Karata. ©FCCJ

Doppelgängers are much in the news these days, thanks to the buzz surrounding the US documentary Three Identical Strangers, which lays bare a shocking tale of triplets separated at birth, reunited in adulthood through a fluke, and their heartbreaking search for answers.

Ryusuke Hamaguchi’s Asako I & II also features a mystery centered on a doppelgänger, but audiences should not expect any pat explanations. This “twin,” played impressively by Masahiro Higashide, is not the film’s protagonist. As the (English) title makes clear, that would be Asako herself — although those Roman numerals can be interpreted in a number of ways. 

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Karata and Higashide.
© 2018 NETEMO SAMETEMO FILM PARTNERS & COMME DES CINÉMAS

Hamaguchi made his name guiding unknown actresses to a shower of awards from overseas festivals for his 5-hour 17-minute revelation Happy Hour in 2015. If the selection of Asako I & II for the Official Competition at this year’s Cannes Film Festival is any indication, star Erika Karata may be poised for the same success. The film will shortly play at the Toronto, New York and San Sebastian film festivals, and its Japan release in 40+ theaters reflects Hamaguchi’s newfound reputation as an internationally acclaimed auteur.

The director and his leading lady, who marks her first major role with Asako I & II, appeared after FCCJ’s sneak preview screening and recalled their Cannes experience, the first red carpet for both. Said the director, with typical understatement, “I’m a cinephile, so to be on the other side of what I’d always watched was very exciting.” Karata was still palpably excited: “To be able to participate was such a surprise. I didn’t ever imagine I’d go there at such a young age and with my first lead role. I feel extremely lucky to have had such an experience. It was like a dream, just like the [Japanese] title of the film.”

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 ©FCCJ

Hamaguchi has already completed nine films in just over a decade — including a trilogy of documentaries centered around the Fukushima disaster — and has been a fixture on the festival circuit since his first release. But Asako I & II marks his first commercial release, and is also a Japan-France coproduction. Asked about the process of creation, he said, “I assume that not many people know the difference between working on an independent vs. a commercial film. The starkest difference is the scale and size of the budget. The level and quality, I’ll call it, and the goals of the producers are also different. But my producers were familiar with my earlier films, so we were able to work together in a flexible fashion. We were able to meld my style with a more commercial style.”

He continued, “The effect of it being a Japan-France coproduction is that it was easy to expand it into international territories, so there was no risk of having to recoup the budget in the Japanese market only. MK2 is handling international sales, and came onboard during the script stage. They’ve already sold the film in over 10 territories.”

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© 2018 NETEMO SAMETEMO FILM PARTNERS & COMME DES CINÉMAS

A journalist pointed out that Asako I & II is adapted from a bestseller by a female novelist (Akutagawa Prizewinner Tomoka Shibasaki, whose earlier novel “A Day on the Planet” also got the cinematic treatment), and that Hamaguchi had also cowritten the script with a female writer, Sachiko Tanaka. “Did you have to adjust your own perspective?” he was asked. Responded Hamaguchi, “They brought a lot to the story in terms of a female perspective. But you don’t have to be a woman to understand Asako’s actions. And you don’t have to be a female to shoot a story like this. Ms. Karata was able to embody the character of Asako. She had extreme focus in playing the role, and I just let her lead me — all the way to Cannes.”

(In a similar vein, it’s worthwhile to note that Guardian film critic Peter Bradshaw suggested that the film is a reversal of traditional roles: “You’ve got a woman who falls for a guy’s looks, not ‘personality.’ Asako I & II is about the female gaze, and male beauty.”)

The bulk of the evening’s questions focused on the doppelgänger in the room — the two characters played by Higashide, and their relationships with Asako.

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 ©Koichi Mori

In the film, Osaka college student Asako (Karata) first sees Baku (Higashide) at a photography exhibit, and smiles to herself about his uncombed mop of hair, his flip-flops and coveralls. But shortly after leaving the museum, she turns to find him just feet away, and they exchange names. Then, as firecrackers literally go off behind them, they kiss deeply. A few days later, they relate their meet-cute story to disbelieving friends at an izakaya. “It’s fate,” says Baku. Asako’s BFF Haruyo (Sairi Ito, in a standout performance) immediately warns her, “He’s a heartbreaker — I know he’s gonna make you cry.” And indeed, Haruyo is right. The happy couple has only 6 months together before Baku disappears one day while out shopping for shoes.

Inconsolable, Asako finally moves to Tokyo and takes a barista job. Sometime later, she comes face to face with Baku again, although she gradually accepts that he is actually who he says he is: Ryohei Maruko (also played by Higashide), a straight-laced marketing executive for a sake company near her café. Confused by Asako’s sudden advances, followed by a sudden chill when she realizes her mistake, Ryohei falls as hard for Asako as she fell for Baku. A serious, reliable type — the polar opposite of her ex — he gradually wins her trust, and they’re brought firmly together by the shock of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. But whether it’s really love is a mystery, even to Asako. Although their lives fall into a comfortable pattern, her secret obsession with Baku keeps getting in the way. And then, 5 years later, Asako is confronted with the ghost of her past, and makes an astounding choice.

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Karata and Hamaguchi react to a question.  ©Koichi Mori

A member of the FCCJ audience wondered about the motivations of Baku, whom he called “emotionless,” and how much the film differs from the novel. Admitted Hamaguchi, “I stayed true to the novel, but I’ve received quite a lot of questions about Baku during my overseas travels to show the film. That made me realize how indispensable he is to the story arc. As to what motivates him, that’s not depicted in the novel, nor is it explained why he leaves Asako. Since he’s a character that can’t be explained by emotional impulse or motivation, he becomes a wonderful catalyst in the story arc. And it allows for a wonderful departure from realism.”

Asked about the experience of acting opposite not just one, but two Higashides, Karata said, “He plays two very different characters, and he was very different on set, too. When he played Baku, he felt like a fragile, ephemeral character. I felt like I was with him but not really with him at all. When he played Ryohei, I felt enveloped by the love he had for the character of Asako, like I was floating in this bubble of love that he’d created. He helped me a lot in playing my character.”

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Asako shares a laugh with friends. 
© 2018 NETEMO SAMETEMO FILM PARTNERS & COMME DES CINÉMAS

She also mentioned that she’d read the original novel several times and kept notes on lines of dialogue that she especially liked. For a certain scene, in which she falls asleep and is awoken with a kiss, it “allowed me to feel like I was in the same state of mind as Asako was in the novel. The way Higashide-san kissed me [as Baku] was quite different from the way he’d kissed me as Ryohei. I had this sense of, ‘Who is this man? He’s so different.’ That’s exactly the way it was depicted in the novel. It’s a [pivotal moment] that is very disconcerting to her.”

Although the film was overshadowed by the eventual Palm d’Or winner, Hirokazu Kore-eda’s Shoplifters (see the June blog), Asako I & II is perhaps the more universal story of the two. An enigmatic meditation on first love, and the staggering power it exerts over our ability to move on with our lives once it ends, it is sure to prompt many audience members to revisit their idealized memories of youth.

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Hamaguchi and Karata relax at the end of the session. ©FCCJ

  

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© 2018 NETEMO SAMETEMO FILM PARTNERS & COMME DES CINÉMAS

Selected Media Exposure

THE TRIAL


THE TRIAL (Shinpan)


June 25, 2018
Q&A guests: Director John Williams and stars Tsutomu Niwa and Rina Tsuneishi


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Williams, flanked by Niwa (left) and Tsuneishi (right).  ©Mance Thompson

The innocent man wrongly accused, fighting for the elusive truth that will free him: it’s a familiar theme in literature and film, and it seems unlikely to ever wear out its welcome.

It’s somewhat surprising, then, that Franz Kafka’s great existential nightmare, “The Trial” (“Der Process”) has been filmed only twice before. The first time was in 1963 by Orson Welles, who set his expressionist interpretation against the backdrop of the Cold War; the second was in 1993 by David Jones, who returned the story to its Prague roots, giving it a less overtly contemporary subtext.

John Williams, a Welshman who has made his home in Japan for several decades, has now transplanted the tale to Tokyo, and the great accomplishment of his adaptation is that it seems both absurd and yet frighteningly plausible.

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John Williams. ©Mance Thompson

Williams’ day job is teaching literature and film at Sophia University, and his earlier Japanese-language films reflect his fluency with richly layered texts. In 2016, he found inspiration for a radical reimagining of Shakespeare’s “The Tempest,” set entirely on Sado island (and aptly named Sado Tempest), fusing Noh theater, taiko drumming, Japanese rock and time travel. His 2006 Starfish Hotel (taglined Welcome to the Darkland, and perhaps inspired by both “Alice in Wonderland” and Haruki Murakami), was a supernaturally tinged tale of a salaryman searching for his missing wife with the help of a man-size rabbit.

The writer-director has previously discussed The Trial as a reflection of Japan’s current political climate, citing the government’s attempts to “clamp down on divergent voices and opinions, actively muzzling the media and passing laws that threaten journalists’ freedom. People who want to see [the film] as a satire about Japanese bureaucracy can read it that way too, but it is also a film about the education system or about the problems of a society where people mostly sleep their way through the systems that govern their lives and are persuaded by the government and by TV and by the media not to think too much and not too think too deeply. I worry that democracy is being slowly whittled away by something far more insidious than the Japanese government, and that ‘something’ is so subtle it is almost invisible most of the time.”

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Niwa, left ©FCCJ; Tsuneishi ©Mance Thompson

Appearing at FCCJ with the two stars of The Trial, Williams explained, “Originally I was going to shoot a lot of the film in a very unreal space in a very unreal way. But I realized that I wanted to make a film about contemporary Japan, and I was really only using ‘The Trial’ as a commentary on contemporary Japan. Therefore, to make a surreal version of it would blunt the impact of what I was trying to say. Part of what I was trying to explore was the creeping sense of things becoming unfamiliar and strange in the world of Japan today, and the only way to do that was to find concrete examples in the real world, but shoot it in a real world that is somehow defamiliarized.”

Indeed, the “real world” of the film is completely recognizable, yet austere, washed of intense colors and depopulated. It opens in a nondescript apartment block, where Yosuke Kimura (Tsutomu Niwa), a banker, has awoken on the morning of his 30th birthday to find two men at the foot of his bed, announcing he is under arrest. When he demands to see the warrant, they admit they haven’t been entrusted with it, but will instead be his “angels.” Kimura has no idea what the charge is, and when the official warrant arrives later by special delivery, it stipulates no crime. His comely next-door neighbor, Mari Suzuki (Rino Tsuneishi) has just dropped by to say the angels questioned her about him, and she urges Kimura to confess. He assures her he is innocent. She finds his apartment a bit too tidy, but he does seem mild mannered… surely he’s no criminal. 

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Yosuke Kimura (Niwa) awakens to an existential nightmare in John Williams' The Trial. ©Carl Vanassche

Kimura is summoned to a court date by the National Security Council Court Office, but with the wrong address and no time. When he manages to arrive, he finds a ridiculous scene: the apparent chief clerk sits at a desk in a school gymnasium, as a woman hangs underwear on a laundry line strung behind him. When Kimura dares to suggest that things are simply not right in “this farce you call a court,” the hearing is halted and he is ordered to return later. On his next court date, he finds a roomful of fellow offenders, some of whom have awaited trial “for an eternity” and urge him not to be rash.

Mari offers to give him an alibi, but flees when he tries to kiss her. The court laundry lady (Shizuko Kawakami), a self-professed legal expert, seductively suggests, “We could add testimony to your file to help you. We could lose some of the incriminating testimony.” But whenever Kimura accepts help, or engages in harmless flirtations, he looks even guiltier. Eventually, even his lawyer despairs. “You need to control your lust,” he shouts. “Your sloth, your avarice, your pride, your sexual deviance! How can I defend such a monster?” Wherever Kimura turns, people seem to know about his trial — worse, they all believe he’s culpable and will face a terrible punishment in the end.

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The back of the Japanese flier for the film is a clever
approximation of Kimura's court summons.  ©︎Carl Vanassche

In the park one day, he finds a puppeteer putting on a show with the Crow Man, the “only law,” who “comes out of the darkness” to rule over the world, finding all the “bad, rude, greedy, lazy” people… the criminals.” As the children in the circle around the puppeteer giggle, he turns to Kimura, and advises him to simply accept the inevitable: “Haven’t you heard that Truth is dead? Everything is just a big show nowadays.”

The Trial is rife with such pointed criticisms, and Williams’ actors were asked whether they had hesitated to take part in what could possibly be considered a seditious work.

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Photo left ©Mance Thompson; right ©FCCJ

Niwa, who appeared in the director’s previous three films and assumes his first leading role with The Trial, responded in English, “We first collaborated together on his first film, Firefly Dreams. We’ve worked closely since then for [almost] 20 years, so I didn’t hesitate to put my trust in him. I understand his style, and what he envisions for his films. But it was hard to prepare for this role. I couldn’t define a thruline for the character. It was a struggle for me. I knew he was just passive, but it would have been boring if I was acting only passively. What finally clicked for me in finding the character was the death of my father-in-law. I realized that the character represented the entire life of a person. As I took care of my father-in-law and watched him fight to live on, his struggle was the same as this character’s.”

Tsuneishi also professed full faith in her director: “I personally agreed with [Williams’] commitment to depicting what he wanted to depict, and it’s up to each individual viewer to interpret the film in their own way. I thought it was a good opportunity to participate in the film, because by portraying these problems, it can instigate discussion.”

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Court is in session. ©Carl Vanassche

Pressed further about the overall message, Williams replied, “I don’t want to be too specific about what political meanings I intended, because I do want it to have multiple interpretations, and I did want to be true to Kafka’s existential novel. I hope it’s a film not just about politics. As Tsutomu said, each one of us has to make sense of our own lives. I suppose something that really stuck in my head was, about three years ago at Sophia University, while we were doing a critical thinking exercise about a piece of literature, one of my students asked, ‘What is the answer to this?’ I said, ‘Well, I don’t have an answer. It’s literature. What does it mean to you?’ She said, ‘No, the teachers in our schools have a book which gave all the answers for each piece of literature. I want an answer. I want you, as a teacher, to tell me what it is.’ I began to feel that a lot of young people were in a similar mind frame, that there’s a right answer and it’s going to be given to you by somebody else. So partly, this film is a critique of that — who thinks our thoughts for us? I suppose that’s both a philosophical and a political question.”

Thanking Williams warmly for “another head-scratching film,” one attendee asked whether the #MeToo movement, with “men seeing women as sexual objects or feeling that they’re guilty without being charged,” had had any impact on his approach. The director explained that the shoot had actually taken place in February 2017, and the movement “really kicked off slightly after that. Of course I was thinking a lot and talking a lot with the actors about the sexual politics of it. I could see the potential for Kimura being a kind of James Bond character who goes through a load of women who all appear to be in love with him. In the book, a couple of the women characters are like victims, and I wanted to strengthen some of them, give them an empowerment — but a false empowerment. Last year I spent time back in Britain, and when I came back I was really shocked at how different the gender politics are here, how women are not respected. I was trying to say something about that.”

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©Mance Thompson

Asked to clarify whether the focus on women trying to seduce Kimura was present in the original novel, Williams responded, “It is in the original novel. The women all claim that there’s a special aura he has because he’s [been] accused, and there’s a lot of sex and sexual behavior in the novel. But I wanted to try to suggest that women in Japanese society are trapped in this role where they have to use their sexuality because they’re deprived of real power. I was trying to suggest that these characters are all in a state of false consciousness about how to use power in society. My wife told me that I wasn’t successful in doing that [laughter]. But the intention was to preserve the thing in the novel about sex is power, but to try to depict four different types of women who are all using their sexuality, but not in a way that is actually genuine. I talked a lot to the actresses about this because I was aware that this is a kind of dangerous area.”

Said Tsuneishi, “I think the female allure or attraction depends on the woman and the power that she has. Whether it applies only to Japanese women, I don’t think that’s necessarily the case. As for the four women in the film, they each use their own approach to seducing Kimura. I agree with what [Williams] said, but when it comes to my own role, although Mari wants to figure out how to use her sexuality as a means of power, I don’t think necessarily all women are like that. One thing that isn’t depicted in the film is that Mari is actually a virgin, so she’s actually very timid and she craves physical contact, but she’s too shy. She wants to break out of the box she’s confined in.”

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The Crow Man delivers a frightening message. ©Carl Vanassche

She continued, “As for the depiction of women and how they’re perceived, I think this is something that is true of other countries as well as Japan. I get very aggravated at times by how women are perceived. But I thought that if the director wanted to create an opportunity for discussion, there was no reason not to participate. The script was written in English and translated, but the director was very inclusive and we discussed how to re-translate certain words and phrases. He was very considerate in that way.”

As for Niwa, whose character is chided by a priest for “looking for help in all the wrong places,” he said, “For Yosuke Kimura, all four women helped him, and he wanted their help. They’re the keys to saving him, and saving his life.” He laughed bitterly. “But they didn’t save him.”  

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©Carl Vanassche

Selected Media Exposure

Page 1 of 18

Recent posts

TEN YEARS JAPAN

00:00 Thursday, October 18, 2018

ASIAN THREE-FOLD MIRROR PANEL AND SCREENING IN COLLABORATION WITH TIFF

00:00 Thursday, October 04, 2018

PASSAGE OF LIFE

00:00 Saturday, September 22, 2018

ASAKO I & II

00:00 Friday, August 31, 2018

THE TRIAL

00:00 Friday, June 29, 2018

SHOPLIFTERS

00:00 Friday, June 08, 2018

THE MAN FROM THE SEA

00:00 Friday, May 25, 2018

BLOOD OF WOLVES

00:00 Thursday, May 10, 2018

OH LUCY!

00:00 Saturday, April 28, 2018

SAMURAI AND IDIOTS

00:00 Tuesday, April 10, 2018
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